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[141], In 2019 Lufthansa had retired 6 of its 14 A380s due to their unprofitability. [271], As the A380 fleet grows older, airworthiness authority rules require certain scheduled inspections from approved aircraft tool shops. [361] Qantas eventually cancelled its order in February 2019 amid doubts over the A380's future. [7]:16–17 Airbus organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, British Aerospace, Deutsche Aerospace AG, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. It is the world's largest passenger airliner. It obtained its type certificate from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 12 December 2006. [188] Repair costs for earlier aircraft are expected to be around €500 million (US$629 million). As they should be parked by June 2018 before reconfiguration, MAS confirmed the plans and will also use them for peak periods to high traffic markets like London.[328]. [195] This reduces the amount of wiring required and minimises latency. Passenger capacity varies with the seat configuration chosen by the operating airline. The A380s network and server system stores data and offers electronic documentation, providing a required equipment list, navigation charts, performance calculations, and an aircraft logbook. As further aircraft are retired, Emirates-owned airframes will continue to be used for parts, while leased airframes will be returned to the lessors.[352]. [90], On 11 December 2014, Airbus chief financial officer Harald Wilhelm hinted the possibility of ending the programme in 2018, disappointing Emirates president Tim Clark. For other uses, see, Integration with infrastructure and regulations, Max. [223][224] The Air Austral's proposed 840 passenger layout has not come to fruition. As Boeing see the VLA market as too small to retain in its 2017 forecast, its VP marketing Randy Tinseth does not believe Airbus will deliver the rest of the backlog. The application of GLARE on the A380 has a long history, which shows the complex nature of innovations in the aircraft industry. [307] China Southern struggled for two years to use its A380s from Beijing, and finally received Boeing 787s in its base in Guangzhou, but where it cannot command a premium, unlike Beijing or Shanghai. Airbus even considered squeezing in 11 seats … Airbus A380 makes maiden flight, but commercial doubts remain", "Airbus 380 conducts test flights in Addis Ababa", "Airbus tests A380 jet in extreme cold of Canada", "Airbus to reinforce part of A380 wing after March static test rupture", "Airbus A380 evacuation trial full report: everyone off in time", "Pictures: Airbus A380 clears European and US certification hurdles for evacuation trial", "GE joint venture engines tested on Airbus A380", "Airbus test flight with engine alliance engine a success", "Airbus A380 jets off for tests in Asia from the eye of a storm", Long-serving Flight Test Aircraft Play Different Roles, "EASA Type-Certificate Data Sheet TCDS A.110 Issue 03", "FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet NO.A58NM Rev 2", Doc 8643 – Edition 40, Part1-By Manufacturer, "The Airbus saga: Crossed wires and a multibillion-euro delay", "Major turbulence for EADS on A380 delay", "Airbus delay on giant jet sends shares plummeting", "Airbus replaces chief of jumbo jet project", "Airbus confirms further A380 delay and launches company restructuring plan", "Airbus will lose €4.8bn because of A380 delays", "A380 Freighter delayed as Emirates switches orders", "ILFC to defer its Airbus A380 order until at least 2013, ditching freighter variants for passenger configuration", "Airbus says A380F development 'interrupted, "Airbus has no timeline on the A380 freighter", "Emirates Airlines reaffirms commitment to A380 and orders additional four", "Singapore Airlines boosts Airbus fleet with additional A380 orders", "Qantas signs firm order for eight additional A380s", "Air France to order two additional A380s and 18 A320 Family aircraft", "Qatar Airways confirms order for 80 A350 XWBs and adds three A380s", "Airbus could build next Air Force One; 747 due to be replaced", "US considers Airbus A380 as Air Force One and potentially a C-5 replacement", "EADS waves off bid for Air Force One replacement", "Airbus Expects Sharp Order Drop in 2009", "Airbus Fell Short with 10 A380s in 2009", "Airbus Beats Boeing on 2010 Orders, Deliveries as Demand Recovery Kicks In", "BBC Two: 'How to Build a Super Jumbo Wing, "SIA's Chew: A380 pleases, Virgin Atlantic disappoints", "Qantas A380 arrives in LA after maiden flight", "Airbus narrowly meets delivery target of 12 A380s in 2008", "Singapore Airlines celebrates its first millionth A380 passenger", "Airbus A380: Mehr als 1,5 Millionen Passagiere", "Strong Euro Weighs on Airbus, Suppliers", "Air France set to get Europe's first A380 superjumbo", "Lufthansa übernimmt A380 am 19. Flottau, Jens, In a squeeze, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 April – 10 May 2015, p. 64, International Civil Aviation Organization, List of Airbus A380 orders and deliveries, "Airbus unveils first A380 centre wingbox", "Is Airbus's A380 a 'superjumbo' with a future or an aerospace white elephant? As of February 2018[update], Enders was confident the A380 would gain additional orders from existing or new operators, and saw opportunities in Asia and particularly in China where it is "under-represented". Seat rows are numbered from 1 to 30. On 14 February 2019, after Emirates reduced its last orders in favour of the A350 and the A330neo, Airbus announced that A380 production would end by 2021.[6]. [290] On 19 July 2015, Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier stated that the company will build a new version of the A380 featuring new improved wings and new engines. [305] [301], In its 2000 Global Market Forecast, Airbus estimated a demand for 1,235 passenger Very Large Aircraft (VLA), with more than 400 seats: 360 up to 2009 and 875 by 2019. It arrived in North America on 6 February 2006, landing in Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada for cold-weather testing. [49] On 26 March 2006, the A380 underwent evacuation certification in Hamburg. As the jet age roared towards its peak, aircraft manufacturer Airbus wanted to create its own superjumbo to challenge Boeing's 747 for supremacy. [257] The A380 undercarriage consists of four main landing gear legs and one noseleg (a similar layout to the 747), with the two inboard landing gear legs each supporting six wheels. [20][306], In 2013, Cathay Pacific and Singapore Airlines needed to balance frequency and capacity. [4][5][6][7] Airbus offers 11-abreast seats for delivery in 2017. Difficulties in electrical wiring [371] [114], During repairs following the Qantas Flight 32 engine failure incident, cracks were discovered in wing fittings. [35], After assembly, the aircraft are flown to Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (XFW) to be furnished and painted. [6] Airbus stated that this cancellation would bring the A380's production to an end when the last unfilled orders are delivered in 2021. Contacts and contracts: Cross-level network dynamics in the development of an aircraft material. Van Burg, E., Berends, H., & van Raaij, E. M. (2014). [94] Emirates' Tim Clark claimed that the A380 has better fuel economy at Mach 0.86 than at 0.83,[95] and that its technical dispatch reliability is at 97%, the same as Singapore Airlines. Tim Clark stated the proposed re-engining would have offered a 12-14% fuel-burn reduction with an enhanced Trent XWB.[299]. Replacing a blanket 10 nautical miles (19 km) separation for aircraft trailing an A380 during approach, the new distances were 6 nmi (11 km), 8 nmi (15 km) and 10 nmi (19 km) respectively for non-A380 "Heavy", "Medium", and "Light" ICAO aircraft categories. [251][252] Runway lighting and signage may need changes to provide clearance to the wings and avoid blast damage from the engines. [350], The first two A380s delivered to Singapore Airlines (Airbus MSN003 and MSN005, SIA 9V-SKA and 9V-SKB) flew to Tarbes, France to be scrapped. The real backlog is much smaller than the official 107 with 47 uncertain orders: 20 commitments for the A380-specialized lessor Amedeo which commits to production only once aircraft are placed, eight for Qantas which wants to keep its fleet at 12, six for Virgin Atlantic which does not want them any more and three ex Transaero for finance vehicle Air Accord. [270], Singapore Airlines describe the A380's landing speed of 130–135 kn (240–250 km/h) as "impressively slow". [42] The first A380, registered F-WWOW, was unveiled in Toulouse 18 January 2005. Airbus cited as underlying causes the complexity of the cabin wiring (98,000 wires and 40,000 connectors), its concurrent design and production, the high degree of customisation for each airline, and failures of configuration management and change control. [319], Ten years after its first flight, Brégier said it was "almost certainly introduced ten years too early". Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long haul market. Airbus's newest concept would be a stretch of the A380-800 offering 50 seats more—not 100 seats as originally envisaged. [339], With four A380s leased to Singapore Airlines having been returned between October 2017 and March 2018, Dr. Peters fears a weak aftermarket and is considering scrapping them, although they are on sale for a business jet conversion, but on the other hand Airbus sees a potential for African airlines and Chinese airlines, Hajj charters and its large Gulf operators. The A330-900, A350-900 or 787-9 were being evaluated as potential replacements. [155] The design range for the A380−800 model is 8,500 nmi (15,700 km);[156] capable of flying from Hong Kong to New York or from Sydney to Istanbul non-stop. This enables the widespread use of laser beam welding manufacturing techniques, eliminating rows of rivets and resulting in a lighter, stronger structure. In November 2017, its chief executive Tom Enders was confident Airbus would still produce A380s in 2027 with more sales to come, and further develop it to keep it competitive beyond 2030. In its 2017 half-year report, Airbus adjusted 2019 deliveries to eight aircraft. [55] The aircraft flew from Toulouse with 474 Airbus employees on board, in a test of passenger facilities and comfort. [300] Its maximum takeoff weight would have been increased by 3 t (6,600 lb) to 578 t (1,274,000 lb), allowing it to carry more passengers over the same 8,200 nmi range or increase the range by 300 nm. Wing twist would have been modified and camber changed by increasing its height by 33 mm (1.3 in) between Rib 10 and Rib 30, along with upper-belly fairing improvements. On 19 December 2000, the supervisory board of newly restructured Airbus voted to launch an €9.5 billion ($10.7 billion) project to build the A3XX, re-designated as A380, with 50 firm orders from six launch customers. Berends, H., van Burg, E., & van Raaij, E. M. (2011). [176], While most of the fuselage is made of aluminium alloys, composite materials comprise more than 20% of the A380's airframe. Airbus states that safety is sufficient, as the air pressure pushes the door into the frame. [40], Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes. [158] [336] [63] This reduced the total number of planned deliveries by the end of 2009 from about 120 to 90–100. Thermoplastics are used in the leading edges of the slats. [157] It would have had 7% better payload and better range than the Boeing 747-8F, but also higher trip costs. On departure behind an A380, non-A380 "Heavy" aircraft are required to wait two minutes, and "Medium"/"Light" aircraft three minutes for time based operations. [38] The front and rear fuselage sections are shipped on one of three RORO ships from Hamburg in northern Germany to Saint-Nazaire in France. Of the planes currently in service, the passenger capacity ranges from 379 (4-class layout in Singapore Airlines) to 615 passengers (2-class layout in Emirates). Field measurements suggest the approach quota allocation for the A380 may be overly generous compared to the older Boeing 747, but still quieter. Deliveries to customers were planned for sometime in 2020 or 2021. The A380's interior illumination system uses bulbless LEDs in the cabin, cockpit, and cargo decks. [142], In February 2019, Airbus announced it will end the A380 production by 2021, after its main customer, Emirates, agreed to drop an order for 39 of the aircraft, replacing it with 40 A330-900s and 30 A350-900s. [119] EADS acknowledged that the cost of repairs would be over $130 million, to be borne by Airbus. design speed: Mach 0.96 (1,020 km/h; 551 kn) in dive at cruise altitude, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. [229] Airbus has acknowledged that some cabin proposals were unlikely to be installed,[228] and that it was ultimately the airlines' decision how to configure the interior. [45] Rosay said flying the A380 had been "like handling a bicycle". Its range will increase by some 150 nautical miles (280 km), taking its capability to around 8,350 nautical miles (15,460 km) at current payloads. This involved the construction of a fleet of roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships and barges, the construction of port facilities and the development of new and modified roads to accommodate oversized road convoys. The ship travels via Mostyn, Wales, where the wings are loaded. [7] The aircraft configuration was finalised in early 2001, and manufacturing of the first A380 wing-box component started on 23 January 2002. The first aircraft was scheduled to begin commercial operations during the first quarter of 2018[329][330] [116][117] Fittings found to be cracked were replaced. [340] The A380 flight deck has an integrated modular avionics suite with eight 15cm x 20cm liquid crystal displays. "[126][127] Airbus expected that healthy demand for its other aircraft would allow it to avoid job losses from the cuts. with its first flight on 27 April 2005. Their engines and some components had been dismantled and removed while the livery was painted over in white. [90] The first aircraft was sold and leased back by Singapore Airlines in 2007 to Dr. Peters for $197 million. [376] Called the ANA Blue, this A380 will be used for 3 flights a week, going from Tokyo to Honolulu and back. Despite the fact that only two airlines had expressed public interest in purchasing such a plane, Airbus was already pursuing its own large-plane project. In 2017, the A380 fleet exceeded the number of remaining passenger B747s, which had declined from 740 aircraft when the A380 was launched in 2000 to 550 units when the A380 was introduced in 2007, and around 200 ten years later. [39] The wings are manufactured at Broughton in North Wales, then transported by barge to Mostyn docks for ship transport. [53][54] On 4 September 2006, the first full passenger-carrying flight test took place. The 350 bar pressure is generated by eight de-clutchable hydraulic pumps. [264][265] These criteria were in effect while the ICAO's wake vortex steering group, with representatives from the JAA, Eurocontrol, the FAA, and Airbus, refined its 3-year study of the issue with additional flight testing. [320] While no longer losing money on each plane sold, Airbus admits that the company will never recoup the $25 billion investment it made in the project. [178][179][180] The A380 is the first commercial airliner to have a central wing box made of carbon–fibre reinforced plastic. [57], Airbus obtained type certificates for the A380-841 and A380-842 model from the EASA and FAA on 12 December 2006 in a joint ceremony at the company's French headquarters,[58][59] receiving the ICAO code A388. At its launch in 2000, engine makers assured Airbus it was getting the best level of technology and they would be state-of-the-art for the next decade, but three years later Boeing launched the 787 Dreamliner with game-changing technology and 10% lower fuel burn than the previous generation, to the dismay of John Leahy. [207][208] The hydraulic lines are typically made from titanium; the system features both fuel- and air-cooled heat exchangers. The Portuguese ACMI/charter airline will use the aircraft for markets where high capacity is needed and airports where slots are scarce. Other proposed variants included an A380-900 stretch – seating about 656 passengers (or up to 960 passengers in an all-economy configuration) – and an extended-range version with the same passenger capacity as the A380-800. Several A380s which are in service have been offered for lease to other airlines. This aircraft has two decks. This aircraft, which could also feature new engines, would accommodate an additional fifty passengers. [109] In 2014, Emirates stated that its A380 fleet had load factors of 90–100%, and that the popularity of the aircraft with its passengers had not decreased in the past year. It has 115 of the type in its fleet, with some of its earlier aircraft recently grounded at Dubai before the coronavirus hit. In September 2006, the working group presented its first conclusions to the ICAO. [220] On other aircraft, economy seats range from 41.5 to 52.3 cm (16.3 to 20.6 in) in width.[221]. Economy Class is on the main deck. The wings incorporate wingtip fences that extend above and below the wing surface, similar to those on the A310 and A320. [273] It would have the largest payload capacity of any freighter aircraft except the single Antonov An-225 Mriya in service. [7]:31[11], In June 1994, Airbus announced its plan to develop its own very large airliner, designated as A3XX. [314] In 2010, EADS CFO Hans Peter Ring said that break-even could be achieved by 2015 when 200 deliveries were projected. As well as this, the 777 is a far more capable cargo hauler than the A380. In 2000, the projected development cost was €9.5 billion. [260] When using two jetway bridges the boarding time is 45 min, and when using an extra jetway to the upper deck it is reduced to 34 min. [341] [106], Airbus delivered the 100th A380 on 14 March 2013 to Malaysia Airlines. Emirates is at odds with Rolls-Royce over shortfalls in fuel savings from the Trent 900s, and could switch its order for 36 A380s to the smaller A350. Note, the A3XX-200 was a stretch version of the A380 and the final version, the A380-800 was a bit shorter and would have accommodated up to 868 passengers in an all-economy class configuration. Airbus Considers Ditching A380 in 2018 as Buyers Lag, Airbus CEO says stopping A380 production is the "right decision", Asian Airlines' changing presence at London Heathrow, China Southern's A380 problems may not be solved by possible Air China partnership, Opinion: Mega-Transports Hobbled By Their Size, "United Airlines does not see a fit for Airbus A380", "Breaking: The Final Airbus A380 Has Been Assembled", "Review of the Quota Count (QC) System used for Administering the Night Noise Quotaa at Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted Airports", "Noise Data for the First Three Years of Scheduled Airbus A380 Operations at London Heathrow Airport ERCD REPORT 1106", Night Flying Restrictions at Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted Stage 1 Consultation, "Designed for increased operational performance", "Airbus ponders A380 thrust reverser options", "Innovative Honeywell helps to curb A380 weight", Tourism and Mobilities: Local-Global Connections, "A380 superjumbo gives thrilling morning air show", "Rapid growth forecast for carbon fibre market", "Thermoplastic composites gain leading edge on the A380", "Coming Soon: The Innovative Airbus A380".

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