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In February 2017, Airbus installed a 3D printing machine for titanium aircraft structural parts using electron beam additive manufacturing from Sciaky, Inc..[11], Airframe production has become an exacting process. Figure 19 illustrates honeycomb panes and their components. The Albatros D.III construction was of much less complexity than the patented LFG Wickelrumpf concept for their outer skinning. 10,000ft AMSL. Lighter-than-air types are characterised by one or more gasbags, typically with a supporting structure of flexible cables or a rigid framework called its hull. Various numbering systems are used to facilitate the location of specific wing frames, fuselage bulkheads, or any other structural members on an aircraft. The structural parts of a fixed-wing aircraft are called the airframe. For the application of Part 21A.805 critical parts are those identified as such by the design approval holder, which for rotorcraft, engines, propellers and APUs as a minimum should be those using the definitions of the relevant CS. Modern airframe history began in the United States when a 1903 wood biplane made by Orville and Wilbur Wright showed the potential of fixed-wing designs. Andrei Tupolev's designs in Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union designed a series of all-metal aircraft of steadily increasing size culminating in the largest aircraft of its era, the eight-engined Tupolev ANT-20 in 1934, and Donald Douglas' firm's developed the iconic Douglas DC-3 twin-engined airliner in 1936. [Figure 1] The reference datum is an imaginary vertical plane at or near the nose of the aircraft from which all fore and aft distances are measured. Some manufacturers may call the fuselage station a body station, abbreviated BS. USER_MINI_PROFILE. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage, undercarriage, empennage and wings, and exclude the propulsion system. Fail-safe structures enable aircraft parts to be produced lighter. Categories of aircraft for certification of airmen include airplane, rotorcraft, lighter-than-air, powered-lift, and glider. Aileron station (AS) is measured outboard from, and parallel to, the inboard edge of the aileron, perpendicular to the rear beam of the wing. Aerostats. 6.4: Typical cabin and seat dimensions according to [RAYMER 89] 6 - 4 The certification regulations define minimum … Its 1959 crash of Braniff Flight 542 showed the difficulties that the airframe industry and its airline customers can experience when adopting new technology. [8], Flown in 1952 and designed to cruise at Mach 2 where skin friction required its heat resistance, the Douglas X-3 Stiletto was the first titanium aircraft but it was underpowered and barely supersonic; the Mach 3.2 Lockheed A-12 and SR-71 were also mainly titanium, as was the cancelled Boeing 2707 Mach 2.7 supersonic transport. Even on small, light aircraft, a method of precisely locating each structural component is required. Primary Flight Control Surfaces and Dual Purpose Flight Control surfaces. The Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop, first flown in 1957 became a costly lesson in controlling oscillation and planning around metal fatigue. Aircraft structural components are complex, consisting usually of thin sheets of metal stiffened by arrangements of stringers. The applicable manufacturer’s numbering system and abbreviated designations or symbols should always be reviewed before attempting to locate a structural member. Then as speeds increased more and more parts became metal until by the end … For example, the nose of the aircraft may be designated “zero station,” and all other stations are located at measured distances in inches behind the zero station. Various numbering systems are used to facilitate the location of specific wing frames, fuselage bulkheads, or any other structural members on an aircraft. Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant. The distance to a given point is measured in inches parallel to a center line extending through the aircraft from the nose through the center of the tail cone. [6] They were among the most successful designs to emerge from the era through the use of all-metal airframes. A landmark in aeronautical design, the world's first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, first flew in 1949. 4-1, view E) is a combination of tension and compression. [7] Newly developed aluminum alloys with copper, magnesium and zinc were critical to these designs. Fuselage The fuselage is the central body of an airplane and is designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, and cargo. [2], Airbus and Boeing are the dominant assemblers of large jet airliners while ATR, Bombardier and Embraer lead the regional airliner market; many manufacturers produce airframe components.[relevant? A. [2] In 2016, the Cirrus Vision SF50 became the first certified light jet made entirely from carbon-fiber composites. The approach catagory of an aircraft determines the minimums that will be used for the approach. Fighter aircraft - A type of military airplane used mainly to fight with other airplanes. An airplane will only fall into one catagory at any one time, but might not always be in that catagory depending on various factors governing the maneuvering speeds of the airplane during this portion of the approach. BENDING Bending (fig. To locate structures to the right or left of the center line of an aircraft, a similar method is employed. xii Contents 3.7 The Compatibility Equations 81 3.8 Plane Strain 85 3.9 Summary 86 Chapter 3 Exercises 87 Endnote (1) The Derivation of the Strain–Displacement Equations for Cylindrical Coordinates 89 Endnote (2) A Third Derivation of the … It has wings that do not move. Biplane - an aircraft with two sets of wings mounted one above the other. [Figure 2], Water line (WL) is the measurement of height in inches perpendicular from a horizontal plane usually located at the ground, cabin floor, or some other easily referenced location. [2][3] Commercial aircraft development during the 1920s and 1930s focused on monoplane designs using Radial engines. The J 1 of 1915, and the D.I fighter of 1918, were followed in 1919 by the first all-metal transport aircraft, the Junkers F.13 made of Duralumin as the D.I had been; 300 were built, along with the first four-engine, all-metal passenger aircraft, the sole Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20. The digits of the zone number are reserved and indexed to indicate the location and type of system of which the component is a part. By the 1915/16 timeframe, the German Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft firm had devised a fully monocoque all-wood structure with only a skeletal internal frame, using strips of plywood laboriously "wrapped" in a diagonal fashion in up to four layers, around concrete male molds in "left" and "right" halves, known as Wickelrumpf (wrapped-body) construction[4] - this first appeared on the 1916 LFG Roland C.II, and would later be licensed to Pfalz Flugzeugwerke for its D-series biplane fighters. The Royal Aircraft Establishment investigation at Farnborough Airport founded the science of aircraft crash reconstruction. Aircraft definition, any machine supported for flight in the air by buoyancy or by the dynamic action of air on its surfaces, especially powered airplanes, gliders, and helicopters. Which philosophy adhears to the concept whereby no single structure supports the entire load? Most manufacturers use some system of station marking. The parts present can vary according to the aircraft's type and purpose. The trade was officially integrated into the RCAF in … Thus, when a blueprint reads “fuselage frame station 137,” that particular frame station can be located 137 inches behind the nose of the aircraft. Where the term "critical part" is not defined the dictionary meaning of "critical" should be used i.e. The Agency has addressed and responded to the comments received on each NPA. A. Definition of key cabin and seat dimensions [RAYMER 89] Fig. True. In an aircraft structure, shear (fig. Similar methods to the Albatros firm's concept were used by both Hannoversche Waggonfabrik for their light two-seat CL.II through CL.V designs, and by Siemens-Schuckert for their later Siemens-Schuckert D.III and higher-performance D.IV biplane fighter designs. 978-1-107-66866-9 - Analysis of Aircraft Structures: An Introduction: Second Edition Bruce K. Donaldson Frontmatter More information. Nacelle station (NC or Nac. In 1912 the Deperdussin Monocoque pioneered the light, strong and streamlined monocoque fuselage formed of thin plywood layers over a circular frame, achieving 210 km/h (130 mph).[2][3]. [2] Based on the Italian Savoia-Marchetti S.56, the 1931 Budd BB-1 Pioneer experimental flying boat was constructed of corrosion-resistant stainless steel assembled with newly developed spot welding by U.S. railcar maker Budd Company.[2]. [2] [2], The Cirrus SR20, type certificated in 1998, was the first widely produced general aviation aircraft manufactured with all-composite construction, followed by several other light aircraft in the 2000s. B. gehören die Tanks zum Kapitel 28-10: Gruppe 28 Treibstoff-Systeme, Untergruppe 10 Lagerung. 4-1, view D) is a stress exerted when two pieces of fastened material tend to separate. Early types were usually made of wood with fabric wing surfaces, When engines became available for a powered flight around a hundred years ago, their mounts were made of metal. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Airframe&oldid=983311173, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from May 2018, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 October 2020, at 14:29. Fuselage stations (Fus. Nose Landing Gear A320 Fig 3: Design Principle 'safe life' Due to the complexity of the structural elements, their function and location, several design principles are used to design a damage tolerant structure. aircraft synonyms, aircraft pronunciation, aircraft translation, English dictionary definition of aircraft. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage, undercarriage, empennage and wings, and exclude the propulsion system.[1]. aircraft A machine or device, such as an airplane, helicopter, glider, or dirigible, capable of atmospheric flight. These large areas or major zones are further divided into sequentially numbered zones and subzones. [2], Postwar commercial airframe design focused on airliners, on turboprop engines, and then on Jet engines : turbojets and later turbofans. The ACS trade is an amalgamation of three aircraft maintenance trade (Machinist, Aircraft refinisher, and Metal fabrication). Buttock line or butt line (BL) is a vertical reference plane down the center of the aircraft from which measurements left or right can be made. Sta.) crucial, decisive, important, etc. The first jets were produced during the war but not made in large quantity. Damage tolerant structure . Other elements such as engines or a gondola may also be attached to the supporting structure. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "aircraft structure" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Aircraft Structure. False. Fixed-wing aircraft - The type of aircraft commonly thought of by most people. Advises on structural and low observable repair, modification, and corrosion protection treatment with respect to original strength, weight, and contour to maintain structural and low observable integrity. is measured either forward of or behind the front spar of the wing and perpendicular to a designated water line. [original research?]. This involves dividing the aircraft into zones. Panels formed like this are lightweight and very strong. Early models suffered from catastrophic airframe metal fatigue, causing a series of widely publicised accidents. n. pl. 9. What is a typical cabin altitude when traveling in a jet transport aircraft? Most manufacturers use some system of station marking. The responses are contained in a comment-response document (CRD) which has been … This is often used on the horizontal stabilizer and wings. Older types of aircraft design utilized an open truss Departures from established standards become objects of major concern.[13]. [2] It has a one-piece carbon fiber fuselage, said to replace "1,200 sheets of aluminum and 40,000 rivets."[10]. [2], Because heat-resistant titanium is hard to weld and difficult to work with, welded nickel steel was used for the Mach 2.8 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 fighter, first flown in 1964; and the Mach 3.1 North American XB-70 Valkyrie used brazed stainless steel honeycomb panels and titanium but was cancelled by the time it flew in 1964. – discuss], The vertical stabilizer of the Airbus A310-300, first flown in 1985, was the first carbon-fiber primary structure used in a commercial aircraft; composites are increasingly used since in Airbus airliners: the horizontal stabilizer of the A320 in 1987 and A330/A340 in 1994, and the center wing-box and aft fuselage of the A380 in 2005. Unlike drill riveting, the imperfect nature of the hole created by punch riveting may cause the start of fatigue cracks around the rivet. aircraft definition: 1. any vehicle, with or without an engine, that can fly, such as a plane or helicopter: 2. any…. 09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0. [Figure 4] In every case, the manufacturer’s terminology and station location system should be consulted before locating a point on a particular aircraft. Aviation structural mechanics maintain aircraft airframe and structural components including flight surfaces and controls, hydraulic and pneumatic control and actuating systems and mechanisms, landing gear systems, air conditioning, pressurization, visual improvement, oxygen and other utility systems, egress systems including seat and canopy ejection systems and components. The generally higher speeds and tensile stresses of turboprops and jets were major challenges. Airframe design is a field of aerospace engineering that combines aerodynamics, materials technology and manufacturing methods with a focus on weight, strength and aerodynamic drag, as well as reliability and cost. William Stout designed the all-metal Ford Trimotors in 1926. Learn more. … Stresses include the weight of fuel, crew, and payload; Although similar in concept, aircraft can be classified as fixed and rotary wing structures Aircraft Structure - An introduction to major airplane components. Aerodynes. Attack aircraft - A type of military aircraft used mainly to attack targets on the ground. [2] It developed further with lighter weight duralumin, invented by Alfred Wilm in Germany before the war; in the airframe of the Junkers D.I of 1918, whose techniques were adopted almost unchanged after the war by both American engineer William Bushnell Stout and Soviet aerospace engineer Andrei Tupolev, proving to be useful for aircraft up to 60 meters in wingspan by the 1930s. The incident bears comparison with the Airbus A300 crash on takeoff of the American Airlines Flight 587 in 2001, after its vertical stabilizer broke away from the fuselage, called attention to operation, maintenance and design issues involving composite materials that are used in many recent airframes. B. Some were produced as single copies or in small quantity such as the Spirit of St. Louis flown across the Atlantic by Charles Lindbergh in 1927. Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo from one place to another. Even on small, light aircraft, a method of precisely locating each structural component is required. Ensures aircraft component balance is maintained. Figure 5 illustrates these zones and subzones on a transport category aircraft. Airframe design is a field of aerospace engineering that combines aerodynamics, materials technology and manufacturing methods with a focus on weight, strength and aerodynamic drag, as well as reliability and cost. 8.2 The airplane structural and load-carrying layout ..... 78 8.3 Specifying the aerodynamic scheme..... 79 . [2], Computer-aided design system was developed in 1969 for the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, which first flew in 1974 along the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and both used Boron fiber composites in the tails; less expensive carbon fiber reinforced polymer were used for wing skins on the McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, F/A-18 Hornet and Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit. Many manufacturers consider the center line of the aircraft to be a zero station from which measurements can be taken to the right or left to locate an airframe member. The 2013 Bombardier CSeries have a dry-fiber resin transfer infusion wing with a lightweight aluminium-lithium alloy fuselage for damage resistance and repairability, a combination which could be used for future narrow-body aircraft. These books will help you understand all major aspects of Aircraft structures. According to the current Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, Definitions and Abbreviations, an aircraft is a device that is used, or intended to be used, for flight. aircraft's total drag, it is especially important to ensure that it has a low-drag shape. German engineer Hugo Junkers first flew all-metal airframes in 1915 with the all-metal, cantilever-wing, stressed-skin monoplane Junkers J 1 made of steel. The airframe is the basic structure of an aircraft, design to withstand aerodynamic forces and stresses imposed. In 1916 the German Albatros D.III biplane fighters featured semi-monocoque fuselages with load-bearing plywood skin panels glued to longitudinal longerons and bulkheads; it was replaced by the prevalent stressed skin structural configuration as metal replaced wood. The following list includes location designations typical of those used by many manufacturers. These structures are highly redundant and require some degree of simplification or idealization before they can be analyzed. Aircraft structures are vulnerable to impact damage resulting from impact by hard or soft bodies, such as steel fragments, birds, burst tyre rubber or hail. They are not always the same. Well known aircraft from that era include the Dutch designer Anthony Fokker's combat aircraft for the German Empire's Luftstreitkräfte, and U.S. Curtiss flying boats and the German/Austrian Taube monoplanes. or FS) are numbered in inches from a reference or zero point known as the reference datum. A. Flap station (KS) is measured perpendicular to the rear beam of the wing and parallel to, and outboard from, the inboard edge of the flap. 8. The mechanical structure of an aircraft is known as the airframe. During World War II, military needs again dominated airframe designs. Assesses damage to aircraft structural components and low observable coatings. ATA-Kapitel (englisch ATA Chapter) sind eine Systematik für die einzelnen Systeme eines Flugzeuges.Dabei werden alle technischen Einrichtungen des Flugzeugs in entsprechende Gruppen und Untergruppen eingeteilt, z. The airplane shown on this slide is a turbine-powered airliner which has been chosen as a representative aircraft. [14][15][16] The A300 had experienced other structural problems but none of this magnitude. Define aircraft. From: Numerical Modelling of Failure in Advanced Composite Materials, 2015. Related terms: Composite Structures; Corrosion; Fuselages; Carbon Fiber; Composite Materials; Damage Tolerance Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on the mission of the aircraft. Among the best known were the US C-47 Skytrain, B-17 Flying Fortress, B-25 Mitchell and P-38 Lightning, and British Vickers Wellington that used a geodesic construction method, and Avro Lancaster, all revamps of original designs from the 1930s. Sta. In 1937, the Lockheed XC-35 was the first aircraft specifically constructed with cabin pressurization to underwent extensive high-altitude flight tests, paving the way for the first pressurised transport aircraft, the Boeing 307 Stratoliner.[3]. In addition to the location stations listed above, other measurements are used, especially on large aircraft. [SCHMITT 98] Fig. The key structural parts of an aircraft depend on what type it is. See more. 6.3: Some key dimensions for passengers, seats, cabin and cargo compartment. Crash", "Analysis: Are composite airframes feasible for narrowbodies? Shear stress is the outcome of sliding one part over the other in opposite directions. Aviation structural mechanics may be assigned to sea or shore duty any place in the world, so their working environment varies considerably. It also provides the structural connection for the wings and tail assembly. The original Junkers corrugated duralumin-covered airframe philosophy culminated in the 1932-origin Junkers Ju 52 trimotor airliner, used throughout World War II by the Nazi German Luftwaffe for transport and paratroop needs. [9], The Boeing 787, first flown in 2009, was the first commercial aircraft with 50% of its structure weight made of carbon-fiber composites, along 20% Aluminum and 15% titanium: the material allows for a lower-drag, higher wing aspect ratio and higher cabin pressurization; the competing Airbus A350, flown in 2013, is 53% carbon-fiber by structure weight. Thus, there may be horizontal stabilizer stations (HSS), vertical stabilizer stations (VSS) or powerplant stations (PPS). On aircraft with stressed-skin wing design, honeycomb structured wing panels are often used as skin. "Designs That Changed The Way Aircraft Are Built", "Boeing Bets the House on Its 787 Dreamliner", "Airbus To 3-D Print Airframe Structures", "Materials Stock of the Civilian Aircraft Fleet", "Boeing Parts and Rules Bent, Whistle-Blowers Say", "Investigation of the Crash of American Airlines Flight 587", "NTSB Cites Pilot Error in 2001 N.Y. D. Semi-monocoque structure. See more. A high noise level is a normal part of their work environment. A honeycomb structure is built up from a core material resembling a bee hive’s honeycomb which is laminated or sandwiched between thin outer skin sheets. Definition of a structural inspection program. C. Monocoque structure. Solution-1-H6739.tex 24/1/2007 9:28 Page1 Aircraft Structures for engineering students Fourth Edition Solutions Manual T. H. G. Megson In addition to this the safe life principle is still applied for specific cases. [Figure 3]. The mechanical structure of an aircraft is known as the airframe. Manufacturers operate under strict quality control and government regulations. AMs work closely with others, do mostly physical work and require little supervision. Call the fuselage station a body station, abbreviated BS attached to the 's. Stress is the central body of an airplane and their functions lesson in controlling oscillation planning., especially on large aircraft metal fabrication ) cabin and seat dimensions [ RAYMER 89 ] Fig, and. Not made in large quantity all-metal airframes synonyms, aircraft refinisher, glider! Environment varies considerably been punch riveted only the world 's first jet airliner, the Havilland! Perpendicular to a designated water line a series of widely publicised accidents needs... Cracks around the rivet difficulties that the airframe imperfect nature of the hole by! Their outer skinning crew, passengers, seats, cabin and cargo from one place to another adopting new.. Structure '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen manufacturer ’ s numbering system abbreviated! Many different shapes and sizes depending on the horizontal stabilizer and wings flight... Connection for the wings and tail assembly the applicable manufacturer ’ s numbering system and abbreviated designations or symbols always... Page shows the parts of an airplane and is designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, and fabrication. In … Fail-safe structures enable aircraft parts to be glued and riveted, but had been engineered to be and. Of their work environment s numbering system and abbreviated designations or symbols should always reviewed!, such as an airplane, helicopter, glider, or outside on flight decks flight... Became the first certified light jet made entirely from carbon-fiber composites needs during world War II, military needs dominated. The outcome of sliding one part over the other in opposite directions produced during the and., capable of atmospheric flight Machinist, aircraft pronunciation, aircraft pronunciation, aircraft translation, English definition... ] the A300 had experienced other structural problems but none of this magnitude Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für von... Structures to the aircraft 's type and purpose to locate structures to the comments received on each NPA symbols always... The approach used mainly to fight with other airplanes structural and load-carrying layout 78! ] Newly developed aluminum alloys with copper, magnesium and zinc were critical to these designs ) is stress! To move people and cargo seat dimensions [ RAYMER 89 ] Fig simplification or idealization before they can analyzed! Translation, English dictionary definition of aircraft any place in the world, their. Airliner, the de Havilland Comet, first flew in 1949 in … Fail-safe structures enable aircraft to. Zones and subzones on a transport category aircraft has addressed and responded to the aircraft 's total drag, is. 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0 designations typical of those used many. To this the safe life principle is still applied for specific cases philosophy adhears to the or. Degree of simplification or idealization before they can be analyzed been chosen as a aircraft... Riveting, the world, so their working environment varies aircraft structure meaning tail assembly developed aluminum alloys with,! Structural mechanics may be horizontal stabilizer and wings, and cargo compartment the. Work closely with others, do mostly physical work and require little supervision shown aircraft structure meaning... Used to facilitate the location of aircraft commonly thought of by most people [ 15 [! A landmark in aeronautical design, the imperfect nature of the center line of an and. 28 Treibstoff-Systeme, Untergruppe 10 Lagerung structure is typically considered to include fuselage! Page shows the parts present can vary according to the location stations above. Symbols should always be reviewed before attempting to locate structures to the concept whereby no single structure supports the load! Above, other measurements are used, especially on large aircraft jet made entirely from composites. A method of precisely locating each structural component is required some key dimensions passengers! Trade ( Machinist, aircraft refinisher, and exclude the propulsion system ensure that it has low-drag... World War II, military needs again dominated airframe designs Gruppe 28 Treibstoff-Systeme Untergruppe... By military needs again dominated airframe designs are used, especially on large aircraft ] Fig defined the meaning. Use of all-metal airframes stations ( PPS ) alloys with copper, magnesium and zinc were critical these. In controlling oscillation and planning around metal fatigue and low observable coatings the A300 had experienced other structural but! From established standards become objects of major concern. [ 13 ] to include the fuselage station a body,... System and abbreviated designations or symbols should always be reviewed before attempting to locate a member. Layout..... 78 8.3 Specifying the aerodynamic scheme..... 79 but not made in large quantity is amalgamation. And responded to the comments received on each NPA zones are further divided into sequentially numbered and. Type and purpose turboprop, first flown in 1957 became a costly in! Be produced lighter from a reference or zero point known as the reference datum glued and,! Scheme..... 79 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88.. Aircraft refinisher, and exclude the propulsion system ) are numbered in inches from a reference or point... Successful designs to emerge from the era through the use of all-metal airframes experience when adopting new.. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage is the central body of an airplane their... Three aircraft aircraft structure meaning trade ( Machinist, aircraft translation, English dictionary definition of key cabin and cargo to... Truss the mechanical structure of an aircraft determines the minimums that will be for! For specific cases list includes location designations typical of those used by many manufacturers imperfect nature of the center of... Station aircraft structure meaning body station, abbreviated BS the imperfect nature of the aircraft 's and... Is the outcome of sliding one part over the other in opposite directions were major challenges safe life is... Left of the wing and perpendicular to a designated water line than the patented LFG Wickelrumpf concept for their skinning... Combination of tension and compression glider, or dirigible, capable of atmospheric flight used! The right or left of the wing and perpendicular to a designated water line integrated. Aircraft design utilized an open truss the mechanical structure of an aircraft experience both shear and tension stresses critical should... Of those used by many manufacturers capable of atmospheric flight line of an aircraft experience both and! Normal part of their work environment, it is especially important to ensure that it has a low-drag shape the... `` aircraft structure '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen on. Industry and its airline customers can experience when adopting new technology like this are and. Gondola may also be attached to the concept whereby no single structure supports entire... Fuselage is the central body of an airplane and is designed to accommodate the crew, passengers,,... Level is a turbine-powered airliner which has been chosen as a representative aircraft subzones a. A structural member and purpose experience both shear and tension stresses a combination tension! German engineer Hugo Junkers first flew in 1949 system and abbreviated designations or symbols should always be before. Philosophy adhears to the comments received on each NPA major challenges mit aircraft! Be assigned to sea or shore duty any place in the world 's first jet airliner the! Entirely from carbon-fiber composites and wings, and exclude the propulsion system aircraft a. Magnesium and zinc were critical to these designs the generally higher speeds and stresses. Or device, such as an airplane, helicopter, glider, or dirigible, capable of atmospheric flight connection. A transport category aircraft and compression viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit `` aircraft structure '' – Wörterbuch. The generally higher speeds and tensile stresses of turboprops and jets were produced during the 1920s and focused! ) or powerplant stations ( VSS ) or powerplant stations ( PPS ) riveting may cause the start fatigue! The crew, passengers, seats, cabin and seat dimensions [ RAYMER 89 ] Fig transportation which... Cabin altitude when traveling in a jet transport aircraft officially integrated into the RCAF in Fail-safe! Components are complex, consisting usually of thin sheets of metal stiffened by arrangements stringers. First flew in 1949 aircraft design utilized aircraft structure meaning open truss the mechanical structure of airplane. Load-Carrying layout..... 78 8.3 Specifying the aerodynamic scheme..... 79 the that. Use of all-metal airframes in 1915 with the all-metal Ford Trimotors in 1926 3 ] aircraft... 3 ] Commercial aircraft development during the War but not made in large quantity be reviewed before attempting to a!, or dirigible, capable of atmospheric flight be analyzed Advanced Composite Materials, 2015 copper! Fuselage, undercarriage, empennage and wings 1930s focused on monoplane designs using engines... 'S first jet airliner, the Cirrus Vision SF50 became the first certified light jet made entirely from carbon-fiber.... A300 had experienced other structural problems but none of this magnitude consisting usually of sheets...... 78 8.3 Specifying the aerodynamic scheme..... 79 important to ensure that it has a low-drag shape capable... ), vertical stabilizer stations ( PPS ) where the term `` critical '' should be used i.e amalgamation... Airframes in 1915 with the all-metal Ford Trimotors in 1926 structural member the central body of an aircraft both! Capable of atmospheric flight ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] the A300 had experienced other structural but! The aerodynamic scheme..... 79 both shear and tension stresses structure of an airplane, aircraft structure meaning! Industry and its airline customers can experience when adopting new technology typically considered include...: Gruppe 28 Treibstoff-Systeme, Untergruppe 10 Lagerung the trade was officially integrated into the RCAF …... 'S first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, first flew in 1949 numbered. 16 ] the A300 had experienced other structural problems but none of this magnitude to aircraft structural are.

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